Restore The Fourth

Opposing unconstitutional mass government surveillance



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Litigation Working Group


Litigation Working Group

The RT4 Litigation Working Group is a volunteer group of attorneys, law professors, and law students, chaired by Mahesha P. Subbaraman, Esq. of Subbaraman LLC in Minneapolis, MN. We select key Fourth Amendment appellate cases and submits amicus briefs on behalf of Restore The Fourth. We specialize in historically oriented and originalist briefs, using antebellum and colonial-era precedents to argue for expansive contemporary Fourth Amendment protections.

In 2021, Restore The Fourth has filed a friend-of-the-court brief in Caniglia v. Strom (the “community caretaking” warrant exception should not extend to the home) and is currently partnering with the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in Brown v. Polk County (probable cause should be required for cavity searches of people in pretrial detention). Other recent partners have included the Project for Privacy and Surveillance Accountability, the Rutherford Institute, and the Pacific Legal Foundation.

In 2019-20, Restore The Fourth filed friend-of-the-court briefs in Lange v. California (the Fourth Amendment does not allow an officer to pursue a suspect into their home for a suspected misdemeanor), Nichols v. Wayne County (asset owners in forfeiture proceedings must have a meaningful opportunity to challenge the continued detention of their asset); Lombardo v. St Louis (qualified immunity should not apply in a case where police crushed the breath out of a Black man in custody); Mitchell v. Wisconsin (whether state “implied-consent” statutes impermissibly override the Fourth Amendment’s requirement for real consent); Jessop v. Fresno (qualified immunity should not apply in cases of police theft); Torres v. Madrid (an attempted arrest counts as an arrest for liability purposes); and Bovat v. Vermont (evidence discovered without a warrant when an observing officer was within curtilage of a property, is inadmissible).

In 2017-18, Restore The Fourth filed friend-of-the-court briefs in Byrd (drivers of rental cars still enjoy Fourth Amendment protection)Carpenter (warrant should apply for historical cell site location information), Collins (automobile exception should not apply on private property)Hernandez (qualified immunity should not apply in case of shooting of Mexican national by CBP agent from across the border), Microsoft Ireland (warrants should not apply extraterritorially), Spivey (police deception invalidates consent to a search), Pellegrino (TSA officers are “law enforcement officers” for purposes of liability) and LMP Services (municipalities cannot condition food truck licensing on installation of a GPS tracker). 

In 2015-16, Restore The Fourth filed friend-of-the-court briefs in Ganias (a warrant to search a computer should not cover a later search) and Rodriguez (qualified immunity should not apply in case of shooting of Mexican national by CBP agent from across the border).

We do not yet represent individuals in Fourth Amendment cases.

To submit a case for consideration by the Litigation Working Group, please use this contact form.